The following list comprises the bivalve species that the BivAToL project scientists have selected to analyze for morphological and molecular characters to build our Bivalve Tree of Life. All bivalve families with living representatives are on the list, even though we recognize that some of these taxa are very rare and might elude us in the end. The species were chosen on the basis of availability and appropriateness to represent the diversity of the family, so more species-rich families have more species than smaller, less diverse families. Ultimately each of these species names will be linked to an entry in the Encyclopedia of Life, where you can read more about the biology of each living species on Earth.

Bivatol species: Classification

Class Bivalvia

  • Subclass Protobranchia Pelseneer, 1889
      • Order Nuculoida Dall, 1889
        • Superfamily Nuculoidea J. E. Gray, 1824
          • Family Nuculidae J. E. Gray, 1824
            • Acila castrensis (Hinds, 1843)
            • Deminucula atacellana (Schenck, 1939)
            • Leionucula ?cumingi (Hinds, 1843)
            • Nucula sulcata Bronn, 1831
        • Superfamily Pristiglomoidea Sanders & Allen, 1973
          • Family Sareptidae Stoliczka 1870
            • Pristigloma nitens (Jeffreys, 1876)
      • Order Solemyoida Dall, 1889
        • Superfamily Solemyoidea J. E. Gray, 1840
          • Family Acharacidae
            • Acharax bartschi
          • Family Solemyidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Solemya velum Say, 1822
            • Solemya (Solemyarina) velesiana Iredale, 1931
        • Superfamily Manzanelloidea Chronic, 1952
          • Family Nucinellidae H. Vokes, 1956
            • Huxleyia munita (Dall, 1898)
            • Nucinella n. sp.
      • Order Nuculanoida Carter, Campbell & Campbell, 2000
        • Superfamily Nuculanoidea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858
          • Family Lametilidae
            • Lametila abyssorum Allen and Sanders, 1973
          • Family Malletiidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858
            • Clencharia abyssorum Verrill & Bush, 1898
            • Malletia johnsoni Clarke, 1961
          • Family Neilonellidae Schileyko, 1989
            • Neilonella whoii Allen & Sanders, 1996
          • Family Nuculanidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858
            • Ledella ultima (E. A. Smith, 1885)
            • Nuculana pernula (Mueller, 1779)
            • Scaeoleda caloundra (Iredale, 1929)
            • Spinula sp.
          • Family Phaseolidae Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971
            • family Phaseolidae sp.
          • Family Siliculidae Allen & Sanders, 1973
            • Silicula rouchi Lamy, 1911
          • Family Tindariidae Verrill & Bush, 1897
            • Tindaria callistiformis Verrill & Bush, 1897
          • Family Yoldiidae Dall, 1908
            • Yoldia limatula (Say, 1831)
            • Yoldiella philippiana (Nyst, 1844)
            • *Yoldiella sp. #1
            • *Yoldiella sp. #2
  • Subclass Autolamellibranchiata Grobben, 1894
    • Superorder Pteriomorphia Beurlen, 1944
      • Order Arcoida Stoliczka, 1870
        • Superfamily Arcoidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Arcidae Lamarck, 1809
            • *Anadara notabilis
            • Anadara trapezia (Deshayes,1840)
            • Arca noae Linnaeus, 1758
            • *Arca zebra (Swainson, 1833)
            • Barbatia barbata (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • *Barbatia cancellaria (Lamarck, 1819)
            • Bathyarca inaequisculpta (Smith, 1885)
            • *Lunarca ovalis
            • Trisidos tortuosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
          • Family Cucullaeidae Stewart, 1930
            • Cucullaea labiata (Lightfoot, 1786)
          • Family Glycymerididae Dall, 1908
            • Glycymeris glycymeris (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Tucetona pectinata (Gmelin, 1791)
          • Family Noetiidae Stewart, 1930
            • Arcopsis adamsi (Dall, 1886)
            • Didimacar tenebrica (Reeve, 1844)
            • Noetia ponderosa (Say, 1822)
            • Striarca lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)
        • Superfamily Limopsoidea Dall, 1895
          • Family Limopsidae Dall, 1895
            • Limopsis sp.
            • *Limopsis sp. A
            • Limopsis sp. B
          • Family Philobryidae F. Bernard, 1897
            • Cosa sp.
            • Neocardia sp.
      • Order Mytiloida Férussac, 1822
        • Superfamily Mytiloidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Family Mytilidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Bathymodiolus azoricus Von Cosel, Comtet & Krylova, 1999
            • Brachidontes exustus (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Crenella decussata (Montagu, 1808)
            • Dacrydium sp.
            • Lithophaga antillarum (dOrbigny, 1853)
            • *Modiolus americanus (Leach, 1815)
            • Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Modiolus rumphii (Philippi, 1847)
            • Musculus sp.
            • Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Septifer virgatus (Wiegmann, 1837)
            • Trichomya hirsuta (Lamarck, 1819)
      • Order Pterioida Newell, 1965
        • Superfamily Pterioidea J. E. Gray, 1847
          • Family Isognomonidae Woodring, 1925
            • Isognomon alatus (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Isognomon legumen (Gmelin, 1791)
          • Family Malleidae Lamarck, 1818
            • Malleus albus Lamarck, 1819
            • Vulsella vulsella (Linnaeus, 1758)
          • Family Pteriidae J. E. Gray, 1847
            • Pinctada imbricata
            • *Pteria colymbus
            • Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758)
          • Family Pulvinitidae Stephenson, 1941
            • Pulvinites exempla (Hedley, 1914)
        • Superfamily Ostreoidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Family Gryphaeidae Vyalov, 1936
            • Hyotissa hyotis (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Hyotissa mcgintyi (Harry, 1985)
            • Neopycnodonte cochlear (Poli, 1795)
          • Family Ostreidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Dendostrea frons (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, 1758
            • Saccostrea glomerata (Iredale & Roughley, 1933)
        • Superfamily Pinnoidea Leach, 1819
          • Family Pinnidae Leach, 1819
            • Atrina rigida (Lightfoot, 1786)
            • Pinna carnea Gmelin, 1791
      • Order Limoida Waller, 1978
        • Superfamily Limoidea d'Orbigny, 1846
          • Family Limidae d'Orbigny, 1846
            • Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779)
            • Ctenoides mitis (Lamarck, 1807)
            • Ctenoides scaber (Born, 1778)
            • *Lima caribaea d'Orbigny, 1853
            • Lima lima Linnaeus, 1758
            • Limaria pellucida (C. B. Adams, 1846)
            • Limatula sp.
      • Order Pectinoida H. Adams & A. Adams, 1857
        • Superfamily Pectinoidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Family Entoliidae Teppner, 1922
            • ‡family Entoliidae sp.
          • Family Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Amusium balotti (Bernardi, 1861)
            • Caribachlamys sentis (Reeve, 1853)
            • Delectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin, 1791)
          • Family Propeamussiidae Abbott, 1954
            • Parvamussium jeffreysii (E. A. Smith, 1885)
            • Parvamussium sp.
            • Propeamussium watsoni (E. A. Smith, 1885)
          • Family Spondylidae J. E. Gray, 1826
            • Spondylus ambiguus Chenu, 1844
        • Superfamily Plicatuloidea J. E. Gray, 1857
          • Family Plicatulidae J. E. Gray, 1857
            • Plicatula plicata (Linnaeus, 1767)
        • Superfamily Anomioidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Family Anomiidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Anomia ephippium Linnaeus, 1758
            • Monia patelliformis (Linnaeus, 1758)
          • Family Placunidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758)
        • Superfamily Dimyoidea P. Fischer, 1886
          • Family Dimyidae P. Fischer, 1886
            • Dimya lima Bartsch, 1913
    • Superorder Palaeoheterodonta Newell, 1965
      • Order Trigonioida Dall, 1889
        • Superfamily Trigonioidea Lamarck, 1819
          • Family Trigoniidae Lamarck, 1819
            • Neotrigonia lamarckii (Gray, 1838)
            • Neotrigonia margaritacea (Lamarck, 1804)
      • Order Unionioida Stoliczka, 1870
        • Superfamily Unionoidea Rafinesque, 1820
          • Family Margaritiferidae F. Haas, 1940
            • Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)
          • Family Unionidae Rafinesque, 1820
            • Lampsilis cardium Rafinesque, 1820
            • Scabies crispata (Gould, 1843)
            • Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758)
        • Superfamily Etherioidea Deshayes, 1830
          • Family Etheriidae Deshayes, 1830
            • Etheria elliptica Lamarck, 1807
          • Family Hyriidae Swainson, 1840
            • Hyridella australis (Lamarck, 1819)
            • Triplodon corrugatus (Lamarck, 1819)
            • Velesunio ambiguus (Philippi, 1847)
          • Family Iridinidae Swainson, 1840
            • Aspatharia pfeifferiana (Bernardi, 1860)
            • Chambardia wahlbergi (Krauss, 1848)
            • Mutela hargeri E. A. Smith, 1908
          • Family Mycetopodidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Anodontites elongata (Swainson, 1823)
            • Lamproscapha ensiformis (Spix & Wagner, 1827)
    • Superorder Heterodonta Neumayr, 1883
      • Order Carditoida Dall, 1889
        • Superfamily Crassatelloidea Férussac, 1822
          • Family Astartidae d'Orbigny, 1844
            • Astarte sulcata (da Costa, 1778)
            • Goodallia triangularis (Montagu, 1803)
          • Family Carditidae J. Fleming, 1828
            • Cardita calyculata (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Carditamera floridana Conrad, 1838
          • Family Condylocardiidae F. Bernard, 1896
            • Condylocardia sp.
          • Family Crassatellidae Férussac, 1822
            • Crassinella lunulata (Conrad, 1834)
            • Eucrassatella cumingi (A. Adams, 1854)
      • Order Anomalodesmata Dall, 1889
        • Superfamily
          • Family Clavagellidae d'Orbigny, 1843
            • Brechites vaginiferus (Chenu, 1843)
            • Clavagella melitensis Broderip, 1835
          • Family Cleidothaeridae Hedley, 1918
            • Cleidothaerus albidus (Lamarck, 1819)
          • Family Laternulidae Hedley, 1918
            • Laternula elliptica (King & Broderip, 1831)
            • Laternula marilina (Reeve, 1863)
          • Family Lyonsiidae P. Fischer, 1887
            • *Entodesma beana (dOrbigny, 1853)
            • *Entodesma navicula (Adams & Reeve, 1850)
            • Lyonsia floridana Conrad, 1849
          • Family Myochamidae P. P. Carpenter, 1861
            • Myadora brevis (Sowerby, 1829)
            • Myadora pandoriformis (Stutchbury, 1830)
            • Myochama anomioides Stutchbury, 1830
          • Family Pandoridae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Frenamya elongata (Carpenter, 1846)
            • Pandora pinna (Montagu, 1803)
          • Family Parilimyidae Morton, 1982
            • ‡family Parilimyidae sp.
          • Family Periplomatidae Dall, 1895
            • Cochlodesma praetenue (Pulteney, 1799)
            • Offadesma sp.
          • Family Spheniopsidae Gardner, 1928
            • Grippina californica Dall, 1912
          • Family Thraciidae Stoliczka, 1870
            • Thracia phaseolina (Lamarck, 1818)
        • Superfamily Septibranchia Pelseneer, 1888
          • Family Cuspidariidae Dall, 1886
            • Bathyneaera demistriata (Allen & Morgan, 1981)
            • Cardiomya sp.
            • Cuspidaria cuspidata (Olivi, 1792)
            • Cuspidaria latesulcata Tennison Woods, 1878
          • Family Poromyidae Dall, 1886
            • Poromya illevis Hedley, 1913
          • Family Verticordiidae Stoliczka, 1870
            • Haliris tenerrima (Thiele & Jaeckel, 1931)
            • Mytilimeria nuttalli Conrad, 1837
      • Order Veneroida H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856
        • Superfamily Lucinoidea Fleming, 1828
          • Family Lucinidae Fleming, 1828
            • Cavatidens omissa (Iredale, 1931)
            • Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • *Ctena orbiculata (Montagu, 1808)
            • Loripes lucinalis (Lamarck, 1818)
            • Lucina pensylvanica (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Lucinoma borealis (Linnaeus, 1767)
            • Myrtea spinifera Montagu, 1803
            • Phacoides pectinata (Gmelin, 1791)
        • Superfamily Chamoidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Chamidae Lamarck, 1809
            • Arcinella cornuta Conrad, 1866
            • *Chama aspersa Reeve, 1846
            • Chama gryphoides Linnaeus, 1758
            • Chama macerophylla Gmelin, 1791
        • Superfamily Galeommatoidea J. E. Gray, 1840
          • Family Chlamydoconchidae
            • Chlamydoconcha orcutti Dall, 1884
          • Family Galeommatidae
            • "Scintilla" cf. papillosa Luetzen & Nielsen 2005
            • Divariscintilla octotentaculata Mikkelsen & Bieler, 1992
            • *Divariscintilla yoyo Mikkelsen & Bieler, 1989
            • Galeomma sp.
            • *Galeomma turtoni G. B. Sowerby I in Turton, 1825
            • Lasaea adansoni (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803)
            • Scintillona cryptozoica (Hedley, 1917)
          • Family Kelliidae
            • Bornia sebetia (O. G. Costa, 1829)
            • Kellia cf. suborbicularis (Montagu, 1803)
          • Family Montacutidae
            • Mysella charcoti (Lamy, 1906)
            • *Mysella vitrea Laseron, 1956
            • Tellimya ferruginosa (Montagu, 1803)
        • Superfamily Hiatelloidea J. E. Gray, 1824
          • Family Hiatellidae J. E. Gray, 1824
            • Cyrtodaria siliqua (Spengler, 1793)
            • Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus, 1767)
            • Panopea generosa / globosa (Gould, 1850) / Dall, 1898
            • Panopea japonica A. Adams, 1850
        • Superfamily Gastrochaenoidea J. E. Gray, 1840
          • Family Gastrochaenidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Fistulana sp.
            • Gastrochaena dubia (Pennant, 1777)
            • Lamychaena hians (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Spengleria sp.
        • Superfamily Arcticoidea R. B. Newton, 1891
          • Family Arcticidae R. B. Newton, 1891
            • Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767)
          • Family Trapezidae Lamy, 1920
            • Coralliophaga sp.
            • Neotrapezium sp.
            • Trapezium sublaevigatum (Lamarck, 1819)
        • Superfamily Glossoidea J. E. Gray, 1847
          • Family Glossidae J. E. Gray, 1847
            • Glossus humanus (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Meiocardia sp.
          • Family Kelliellidae P. Fischer, 1887
            • Kelliella cf. nitida Verrill, 1885
          • Family Vesicomyidae Dall & Simpson, 1901
            • Calyptogena magnifica Boss and Turner, 1980
            • Ectagena sp.
            • Vesicomya sp.
        • Superfamily Cyamioidea G. O. Sars, 1878
          • Family Cyamiidae G. O. Sars, 1878
            • Cyamiomactra laminifera (Lamy, 1906)
          • Family Gaimardiidae
            • Gaimardia trapezina (Lamarck, 1819)
          • Family Sportellidae Dall, 1899
            • Anisodonta sp.
            • family Sportellidae sp.
            • Planktomya sp.
        • Superfamily Sphaerioidea Deshayes, 1854
          • Family Cyrenidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774)
            • Polymesoda caroliniana (Bosc, 1801)
            • *Polymesoda floridana (Conrad, 1846)
          • Family Sphaeriidae Deshayes, 1854
            • Eupera sp.
            • Pisidium walkeri Sterki, 1895
            • Sphaerium nucleus (Studer, 1820)
        • Superfamily Cardioidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Cardiidae Lamarck, 1809
            • Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Dallocardia muricata (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Fragum unedo (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Laevicardium serratum (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Tridacna maxima (Roeding, 1798)
          • Family Hemidonacidae Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971
            • Hemidonax pictus (Tryon, 1870)
        • Superfamily Veneroidea Rafinesque, 1815
          • Family Glauconomidae J. E. Gray, 1853
            • Glauconome rugosa Hanley, 1843
          • Family Neoleptonidae Thiele, 1934
            • Neolepton sp.
          • Family Veneridae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Chamelea striatula (Da Costa, 1778)
            • Chione elevata Say, 1822
            • Clementia papyracea (Gray, 1825)
            • Cooperella sp.
            • Dosinia nedigna (Iredale, 1930)
            • Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834)
            • Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Mysia undata (Pennant, 1777)
            • Parastarte triquetra (Conrad, 1846)
            • *Petricola cumingi (?)
            • Petricola lapicida (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Petricolaria pholadiformis (Lamarck, 1818)
            • Ruditapes decussatus (Lamarck, 1818)
            • *Ruditapes philippinarum (A. Adams & Reeve, 1850)
            • *Tivela stultorum (Mawe, 1823)
            • Turtonia minuta (Fabricius, 1780)
            • Venus verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758
        • Superfamily Tellinoidea Blainville, 1814
          • Family Donacidae J. Fleming, 1828
            • Capsella variegata (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Donax deltoides Lamarck, 1818
            • Donax trunculus Linnaeus, 1767
            • Donax veruinus Hedley, 1913
          • Family Psammobiidae J. Fleming, 1828
            • Asaphis deflorata (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Gari maculosa (Lamarck, 1818)
            • Psammobia sp.
          • Family Semelidae Stoliczka, 1870
            • Abra alba (W. Wood, 1802)
            • *Abra nitida (O. F. Mueller, 1776)
            • Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778)
            • Semele cordiformis (Holten, 1802)
            • Semele purpurascens (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Semele sinensis A. Adams, 1853
          • Family Solecurtidae d'Orbigny, 1846
            • Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786)
          • Family Tellinidae Blainville, 1814
            • Angulus versicolor (DeKay, 1843)
            • Fabulina fabula (Gmelin, 1791)
            • Macoma balthica (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Scissula similis (J. Sowerby, 1806)
        • Superfamily Solenoidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Pharidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856
            • *Ensiculus cultellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Novaculina sp.
            • Phaxas pellucidus (Pennant, 1777)
            • Siliqua sp.
          • Family Solenidae Lamarck, 1809
            • Solen vaginoides Lamarck, 1818
        • Superfamily Mactroidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Anatinellidae Deshayes, 1853
            • ‡family Anatinellidae sp.
          • Family Cardiliidae P. Fischer, 1887
            • Cardilia sp.
          • Family Mactridae Lamarck, 1809
            • Mactra violacea Gmelin, 1791
            • Meropesta nicobarica (Gmelin, 1791)
            • *Mulinia lateralis (Say, 1822)
            • Rangia cuneata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1831)
            • Spisula solida (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Tresus capax (Gould, 1850)
          • Family Mesodesmatidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Donacilla cornea (Poli, 1795)
        • Superfamily Dreissenoidea J. E. Gray, 1840
          • Family Dreissenidae J. E. Gray, 1840
            • Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771)
            • Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831)
        • Superfamily Incertae sedis
          • Family Cyrenoididae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1857
            • Cyrenoida floridana (Dall, 1896)
          • Family Thyasiridae Dall, 1900
            • Conchocele sp.
            • Thyasira (Parathyasira) equalis (Verrill & Bush, 1898)
          • Family Ungulinidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1857
            • Cycladicama cumingi (Hanley, 1844)
            • Ungulina rubra Daudin in de Roissy, 1805
      • Order Myoida Stoliczka, 1870
        • Superfamily Myoidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Corbulidae Lamarck, 1818
            • Notocorbula tunicata (Hinds, 1843)
            • Varicorbula gibba (Olivi, 1792)
          • Family Myidae Lamarck, 1809
            • Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758
            • Sphenia antillensis (H. & A. Adams, 1854)
        • Superfamily Pholadoidea Lamarck, 1809
          • Family Pholadidae Lamarck, 1809
            • Barnea candida Linnaeus, 1758
            • *Barnea parva (Pennant, 1777)
            • Martesia striata (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Pholas dactylus Linnaeus, 1758
            • Xylophaga oregona Voight, 2007
          • Family Teredinidae Rafinesque, 1815
            • Kuphus polythalamia (Linnaeus, 1767)
            • Teredo clappi Bartsch, 1923